Thunder Megaphone – A Glacial Valley Can Focus and Amplify Thunder Into a Most Extraordinary Sound

We’ve all heard thunder, and we all know what causes it. Many of us have heard two distinct kinds of thunder, but perhaps we never really noticed or thought about it. Recently, I heard a third kind of thunder.

“Ordinary” thunder – a thoroughly extraordinary sound, but the kind of thunder we hear most often – happens when lightning occurs at some distance from the observer. The initial sound of the lightning bolt echoes off surrounding objects and air masses. Because it is echoed so many times, the thunder stretches out into many, many seconds, even though the initial sound might have lasted a second or two at most. Moreover, because the initial sound echoes off soft things with indistinct surfaces – clouds, thermoclines, and weather fronts – and because many echoes reach the ears of the observer at different times, the original sound is greatly distorted. Almost all high frequency components are filtered out, and the observer hears mostly a low-pitched rumble.

When lightning strikes very close to the observer, within a few hundred feet, the sound is entirely different. The observer might not hear echoes of the thunder at all, but only the pure initial sound. It is a single, sharp, intense “POW!” It may be followed by a much quieter, but still loud, whistling or hissing sound.

But what about that third kind of lightning?

I was camping alone in Crawford Notch State Park in northern New Hampshire, when thunderstorms began rolling into the valley just after dinner. I tidied up my campsite just before the rain started, then retreated to my tent. One thunderstorm passed without much incident.

Darkness had fallen by the time the second thunderstorm rolled up from the south. I occupied myself by counting the time interval between lightning and thunder to track the movements of the storms. Fifteen seconds before the thunder rolled up from somewhere west of Mount Bemis, and I knew the storm was just under three miles southwest of me. Seven seconds between the flash and the rumble beyond Frankenstein Cliff, and I knew the storm was passing nearly a mile and a half to my west.

And then it happened!

A flash. I counted eleven seconds. And I heard a sound unlike any thunder I had ever heard before.

The cacophony included at least half a dozen rapid repetitions of the “POW!” of a nearby lightning strike. But at the same time, there was the rumbling and roaring of “ordinary” thunder, but much, much louder than usual.

Before I could figure out what that sound was, there was another flash somewhere to the north. Again I counted eleven seconds, and again I heard that utterly incredible crackling and powing and rumbling and roaring.

This time, I figured it out.

It was a lightning strike right within the upper reaches of Crawford Notch just a couple of miles north of me. It was right within a gigantic stone megaphone formed by Webster Cliff on the east, Mount Field and Mount Willey on the west, and the old glacial cirque of Mount Willard for a backstop on the north.

And this 1,500 foot deep, three-mile-long granite megaphone was pointed right at Dry River Campground.

Yes, the beautiful U-shaped glacial valley of Crawford Notch is a nearly perfect megaphone, albeit open on top. The bare stone faces of Mount Willard and Webster Cliff echoed the initial “POW!” of the thunder almost undistorted. The western slope of the notch is a bit more heavily wooded, but there’s enough bare ledge and rockslide there to provide a pretty good echo. The open top of the notch was covered by the underbelly of the thunderstorm itself, which provided enough of a soft echoic surface to create the usual rumbling of thunder in addition to the clean “POW!” echoes off the rock faces.

But all of this sound was extraordinarily loud because of the megaphone that focused it all right on me and my campsite.

After I got this all figured out, there was a third lightning flash in the north. Yes, eleven second later, there was that glorious, unearthly sound again.

I wondered why I had never heard this kind of thunder before. I have probably experienced thunderstorms in Crawford Notch at least a dozen times over the years, but never heard the Thunder Megaphone.

My best guess is that I probably have heard it before, but never noticed it. Most of the times I’ve camped there, it was with a crowd of friends and family. Much goes on when a thunderstorm rolls in. Ponchos have to be broken out and put on, while at the same time, various disorderly what-nots need to get stashed into cars and tents before they get soaked. There is a bit of yelling and shouting to be done, and paradoxically among the mayhem, kids and dogs need to have their fears calmed. Meanwhile, tarps over the tents and picnic tables are flapping in the gales, making a poor imitation of thunder themselves.

In all my 25 years camping in Crawford Notch, this may have been the first time I experienced a thunderstorm while I was camping there alone. There was no tarp over the tent, and I had anticipated the thunderstorm well enough to get everything into the car long before the rain started.

So, when the lightning and thunder came, I had nothing to do but observe.

What a treat!

I half hope we get a thunderstorm the next time we go camping in the mouth of the Thunder Megaphone.

Pitlochry Vacations – What To Do When Visiting Pitlochry

Pitlochry vacations are now becoming increasingly popular not only with those who live in the UK, but also with tourists from around the world. Not only does this area of ​​Scotland offer some really stunning scenery but also there are plenty of other things that one can do while staying here.

In this article, we take a look at some of the attractions that you may want to consider visiting during a stay in Pitlochry. Surely, you may find that you need to stay more than a few days in order to enjoy everything that this town and the surrounding area have to offer.

1. Pitlochry Dam – This was built because a power station was needed to provide electricity to the area. When it was built, a new loch was also created and because of this, they had to build a salmon ladder, which allowed the salmon to get upstream, where they would breed.

During your visit to the dam, you are able to see a portion of the ladder that has been enclosed in glass to view just how the salmon make their annual journey to their breeding grounds. This actual exhibition is open from Easter until the last Sunday of October from 10.00 to 17.30 each day.

2. Eradour Distillery – This is the smallest of all Scotland's distilleries and upon your visit will be provided with a wee dram (small glass) of the whiskey that they produce. Tours of the distillery take place regular through the year, but during the winter months (November through to February) there opening hours are different from those in the summer.

3. Killiecrankie Visitor Center – This is to be found outside Pitlochry on the A9 and it is here where you can learn about the Jacobite Rebellion that took place in 1689. It was this rebellion, which was harvested to gain independence for Scotland from England. However, the leader of the rebellion a gentleman called John Graham was killed at the battle, which occurred at Killiecrankie, and this rebellion was defeated by the English troops.

4. Loch Rannoch – This is one of the largest and longest lochs in Scotland and is a short drive away from Pitlochry. This loch is in fact famous as it is actually included in Robert Louis Stevenson's book Kidnapped because he was so impressed with the loch's setting.

Along with the attractions, we have mentioned above when it comes to Pitlochry vacations you will find that there are plenty of other things one can do. Why not spend some time exploring the surrounding countryside. Alternately, if you are feeling a little more adventurous then why not try some water sports which can be found at many of the surrounding lochs.

There are lots of hotels and guest houses in Pitlochry to make your stay a pleasant one. You can then relax and take in the joys of this beautiful part of Scotland.

7 Tips For Buying Swarovski Bridal Jewelry

Swarovski bridal jewelry has been a popular choice for a lot of women today. A reason for this is that Swarovski crystals just looks cool and fantastic because of its one of a kind glimmer and shine. So it’s no wonder that so many people just find themselves highly likely to buy this type of crystals. If it’s your first time to purchase Swarovski then you might just find it much better to do so using these useful tips:

1. Be familiar with different Swarovski crystals and know which one you would like to buy. It can be very unnerving to find that there are so many options out in the market. You can begin by searching up online and looking for the different types and make of Swarovski crystals that you can purchase.

2. Look for a reliable seller. The last thing you want is to find a person who will not be able to give you the right and authentic crystals you so want to purchase. Research about how authentic the seller is and you should also take time to look at the person’s comments and reviews page. Check what other people has to say about this person as they have made transactions with him or her. The more comments you find, then all the more better.

3. Check out the payment options. If you are buying your crystals online then it would be best to do a quick look at the site’s overall look and feel. This is a great way for you to understand just how much reliable the site is when it comes to making transactions. Don’t forget to check the security measures being used onsite or else you might end up making an unnecessary risk.

4. Have a budget before looking at the market or better yet, start with canvassing for prices first. Although Swarovski crystals are generally much less expensive than other precious gems, it is still a precious stone and as such would be more pricey than what you would have expected. So as soon as you get to finish making your canvass it would be easier for you to budget your money so that you can buy the perfect Swarovski crystals that you want.

5. Pair up your crystals with the occasion. This is a great way for you to be able to trim down your choices. Think of the actual reason why you decided to buy Swarovski in the first place and from there, you can think about better choices much easier.

6. Look for classic colors and designs. On way you can enjoy your Swarovski crystals much better is if you get to choose designs that are almost all-around. This simply means that it can be used for different occasions. It would be best to have a design that you can wear even after the wedding is over so that you can really stretch its usability.

7. Get the opinion of a designer. If you are having your gown made through couture, it would be wise to consult them about these crystals too.

Affiliate Programs To Sign Up With

Make money online with affiliate programs can be tough but it can be the most rewarding choice you have ever made. Choosing an affiliate program to start with is the most important part of your online business.

There are so many affiliate programs to choose from. It can be difficult to know which one to sign up with. I personally recommend Clickbank for a comprehensive list of top ranking and highest paying affiliate programs. You will receive a check from Clickbank for your contracts earned twice a month.

If you prefer to receive payments via PayPal, then go to PayDotCom. It is a huge affiliate center with marketplace of products you can promote.

When considering which affiliate programs are best for you, I recommend that you choose one that is specifically related to your site's content and target audience. You can also promote a variety of online digital products as an affiliate. I personally recommend that you choose an affiliate program or products that you are familiar with. This way, it is better for you to recommend these to other. Imagine you are selling something that you know nothing about, you are not going to convince someone to buy it from you.

Personally, I mostly use Clickbank and PayDotCom but I suggest you look around because most companies offered free affiliate programs. Some only allowed affiliates to sell their products after they have purchased it. Whichever websites you are viewing, just scroll down to the bottom and look for affiliate link. Some business owner does not like to display the link in the homepage for everyone to see, so sometimes the affiliate link could have been found in the "about us" page.